Personality disorder

Home Personality disorder
Personality disorder treatments

Eccentric like Madonna, narcissistic like Donald Trump or compulsive like David Beckham – striking personality traits are not reserved just for celebrities. Personality disorders also affect a comparatively high proportion of the general population. Depending on the scientific study, experts believe that anywhere from five to 12 per cent of people have some sort of personality disorder.


Every personality is unique

A person’s personality is made up of all of their psychological and physical characteristics. The different characteristics and composition of personality traits distinguish people from each other and ensure the corresponding individual experience and behavior of each person.

Some of these characteristics and traits, such as temperament or appearance, are genetically determined and brought into the world by each individual. External influences such as experiences, upbringing, climate, environment, etc. affect these characteristics throughout life.

The influences in early childhood and adolescence have by far the strongest effect on the development of a personality.


What is a personality disorder?

A personality disorder corresponds to when a person, over a long period of time (usually since childhood and adolescence), behaves significantly differently to what is considered the norm in comparable situations – i.e. the behavior of most other people in this social circle.

A rigid, maladjusted and inflexible pattern of behavior is considered typical of a personality disorder. Even when the consequences of this behavior are visibly negative and harmful to the person, the patterns are always repeated in the same way.

People with a personality disorder therefore lack the ability to learn from their own mistakes in such a way that they can change their behavior accordingly. This often leads to conflict, as well as constant failure at the same hurdles. Resulting feelings of incomprehension, dissatisfaction, self-deprecation and suffering also then impair quality of life.


There are different types of personality disorders

Depending on which parts of the personality structure are particularly prominent, personality disorders are differentiated according to certain types. However, the boundaries between the individual types are fluid, so that overlapping often occurs. We therefore avoid diagnosing personality disorders and prefer to speak of personality traits.


Types of personality disorder

-Emotionally unstable (borderline) personality disorder

-Narcissistic (self-centered) personality disorder

-Dependent (asthenic) personality disorder

-Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)

-Avoidant personality disorder

-Histrionic (assertive) personality disorder

-Passive-aggressive (negativistic) personality disorder


Emotionally unstable personality disorder

Emotionally unstable personality disorder is characterized by a strong changeability of feelings and emotions. Those affected usually suffer from a lack of or greatly reduced impulse control. This leads to problems in controlling and regulating inner tension with corresponding outbursts of anger or self-destructive behavior. Within the emotionally unstable personality disorder, a distinction is made between the impulsive form and the borderline type.


Symptoms of emotionally unstable personality disorder


Typical signs of emotionally unstable personality disorder, especially the impulsive type, are

  • Often rash, impulsive, uncontrolled actions without consideration of possible consequences.
  • A strong readiness for conflict.


Borderline personality disorder is clearly more complex and, in addition to the characteristics of the impulsive type, manifests as a number of other symptoms, such as

  • An unstable, quickly changing emotional state: hate, love, anger, sadness and fear are quickly interchangeable.
  • Self-harm (e.g. burning or cutting skin with a razor) in order to feel better about oneself.
  • Self-image is disturbed.
  • Many have a constant feeling of inner emptiness.
  • Self-deprecation and self-hatred.
  • Pronounced states of tension and anxiety.
  • Unstable, intense relationships.
  • Strong fear of being abandoned.
  • High-risk behavior that could result in serious injury or death.
  • Suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts.


Narcissistic personality disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by a profound disturbance of self-esteem and extreme sensitivity to criticism. To compensate for these crushing feelings, those affected present themselves outwardly as exaggeratedly boastful and self-important to the point of megalomania. They require excessive attention, affirmation and recognition from others. However, they show little empathy in return. In order to achieve their own goals, they are also prepared to exploit, lie and manipulate others. This often leads to massive conflicts in the interpersonal sphere.


Symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder


Signs that point towards narcissistic personality disorder include

  • Massive self-centeredness and strongly egoistic behavior.
  • Exaggerated sense of self-importance, uniqueness and power.
  • Greed for recognition and admiration.
  • Exploitation of others for own goals.
  • Lack of empathy.
  • Strongly arrogant and overbearing behavior.


Dependent (asthenic) personality disorder

One speaks of an asthenic or dependent personality disorder when the person concerned has an excessive need to be cared for. At the same time, there is often an extreme fear of being abandoned. In order to avoid this by all means, those affected are also prepared to give up their self-determination.


Symptoms of dependent (asthenic) personality disorder


Typical characteristics that may indicate a dependent personality disorder are

  • Little self-confidence
  • Tendency to be submissive
  • Clinging behavior
  • Feeling completely helpless when alone
  • Strong adaptation to the needs of others
  • Shy to take responsibility and make own decisions
  • Often depressed mood
  • Little initiative
  • Strong fear of separation
  • Exaggerated fear of being alone


Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)

People with an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder act excessively conscientiously in line with rigid predefined rules, orders and concepts. Actions are often checked repeatedly in detail for possible errors, which is clearly at the expense of flexibility and, above all, efficiency.

Behind this is the fear of making mistakes. Since everything is checked and rechecked over and over again, those affected need far too much time even for simple routine tasks. In order to get the job done, they often sacrifice their free time and neglect their own hobbies and needs. As a result, they often lack the necessary balance and relaxation.


Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)


Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is often characterized by the following symptoms

  • Excessive preoccupation with rules, lists, order and details, where the actual meaning of these rules is no longer observed.
  • Excessive perfectionism prevents efficient work. Due to constant rechecking, tasks are often not completed.
  • The work of others is fundamentally mistrusted. This makes cooperation and delegation of tasks extremely difficult or impossible.
  • Overall, very inflexible and intolerant personalities who often do not allow opinions and values other than their own.
  • Frequent black-and-white thinking.


Avoidant personality disorder

In avoidant personality disorder, sufferers are plagued by constant self-doubt. They perceive themselves as awkward and inferior, which leads to extreme insecurity. As a result, they shy away from all contact and situations where there may be a risk of being criticized. They therefore only go on dates, take part in activities and even accept job offers if they can be sure that they will receive affection, recognition and praise. In the end, this leads to them living in social isolation, even though they would like to have contact.


Symptoms of avoidant personality disorder


The following symptoms are typical of avoidant (anxious) personality disorder

  • Low self-esteem.
  • Perceive themselves as inadequate, clumsy and inferior to others.
  • Extreme sensitivity to criticism or negative judgment.
  • Long for social interaction but avoid it because of excessive fear of possible criticism.
  • Strong reluctance to interact with unfamiliar groups, people and new situations because of fear of making a fool of themselves.
  • Reticence even within an intimate couple relationship.
  • Career opportunities or new romantic relationships are also turned down for fear of possible rejection or criticism.


Histrionic (assertive) personality disorder

“Strong urge for recognition” is the prominent feature of histrionic personality disorder. People with this personality trait have a constant need to be the centre of attention. To this end, they often dress, wear makeup and/or behave in a particularly conspicuous and inappropriately exaggerated, provocative and/or extremely seductive manner. As a “drama queen”, they use every opportunity to put themselves in the limelight and theatrically play up even insignificant events.


Symptoms of histrionic (assertive) personality disorder


  • Strong urge to assert oneself.
  • Exaggerated emotional behavior towards the outside world.
  • Strongly self-centered or egoistic tendencies.
  • Outwardly expressive but intrinsically superficial and often erratic emotional world.
  • Easily influenced.
  • Visually provocative or strongly seductive self-presentation.
  • Very aloof.
  • Problems forming deep and long-term relationships.


Passive-aggressive (negativistic) personality disorder

Passive-aggressive personality disorder is mainly manifested by an overall very negativistic attitude and passive resistance to the wishes and requests of others – especially authority figures. Unpopular tasks are not directly refused, but rather disregarded by being extremely delayed, slowed down, postponed or repeatedly “forgotten”. Those affected are extremely grumpy and often feel badly treated, misunderstood and blame others. In the world of work, but also within the family and relationships, this often leads to quarrels and extreme tensions that cannot be resolved.


Symptoms of passive-aggressive (negativistic) personality disorder


  • Frequent complaints of being misunderstood and treated unfairly.
  • Predominantly bad-tempered and quarrelsome.
  • Usually see themselves in the victim role, show bitterness and feel envy towards everyone else who is supposedly luckier than they are.
  • React to authority figures with inappropriate criticism and contempt.
  • Purposefully use dawdling, “forgetting” or working extremely slowly as a delaying tactic to avoid completing tasks.
  • Resent suggestions from others to improve work processes.


How do personality disorders develop?

Personality disorders normally develop in early childhood and adolescence, when a young person is still heavily dependent on the protection and care of parents or other caregivers. They usually develop in close connection with negative and stressful experiences, such as separation and/or divorce of parents, death or loss of a caregiver, neglect, rigid role models, violence, sexual abuse, maltreatment, emotional coldness, humiliation, etc., which cause massive fear and strong insecurity and can also lead to permanent changes in brain structures.

This in turn influences the individual experience of feelings, the image of oneself, the way one deals with other people and also shapes behavioral patterns that help to protect oneself from the often massive psychological injuries in the situations concerned.

These behavioral patterns, which are essential for survival, are usually deeply anchored and are often unconsciously carried over into later adult life. Although they are no longer needed there and are usually a hindrance or almost always cause massive problems, they cannot be stopped.


Personality disorders: Common associated and secondary conditions

Personality disorders almost never occur in isolation, but almost always occur together with other mental illnesses as well as other personality traits. Frequent associated, underlying or secondary disorders of personality disorders are, among others:




Anxiety disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Eating disorders


Obsessive-compulsive disorder



Which therapy helps with personality disorders?

Since personality disorders usually develop in early childhood and are deeply rooted, those affected – unlike other mental disorders – often perceive them as part of their identity. Therefore, they often do not acknowledge the need for treatment. It is not uncommon for a doctor to be consulted only because of other related and secondary illnesses, such as depression or addiction.

However, personality disorders can be treated very effectively today. Orthodox medicine prescribes various psychotherapeutic procedures as well as the use of medication. However, the treatment can be very lengthy.


Particularly effective: Holistic therapy in line with the CALDA Concept

With the CALDA Concept, which is individually tailored to your needs and holistically oriented, we offer you an alternative that works extremely effectively and with which quite astonishing results can be achieved in a comparatively short time!


The CALDA Concept: Let us help you!


As a client of the CALDA Clinic, you will receive one-on-one therapy specially tailored to your needs in line with the CALDA Concept. This is a tailor-made and highly effective precision therapy that is holistically oriented. Scientifically founded methods from classical medicine and hypnotherapy are combined with particularly proven healing methods from complementary medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and orthomolecular medicine.


Your benefit: Treatment using the CALDA Concept works very effectively on different levels of the organism and is extremely solution-oriented. As a result, quite amazing results can be achieved within a short period of time – and usually without the use of medication!


The CALDA Concept

Our guiding principles and promise to you:

We treat the causes, not the symptoms!

Whenever possible, we work without psychotropic drugs!

We dedicate our time and our entire know-how exclusively to one client.


The CALDA Concept: The basis of every therapy is the correct diagnosis

The basis of every treatment using the CALDA Concept is a comprehensive and extremely detailed diagnosis. Only then can the underlying causes and disease correlations, which otherwise often remain hidden, be meticulously uncovered and specifically treated.


The CALDA Concept: Our expertise for your health!

You can read all about the CALDA Concept and its advantages here.

You can also find detailed information about the contents of the different CALDA Clinic programs here.


If you demonstrate prominent personality traits, we recommend that you participate in the CALDA Full Program.